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Editorial Board

Prof. Colin Fyfe (UK),

Prof. Roy Perryman (UK), 

Prof. Stephen Dodds (UK)

Prof. Marc A. Rosen (Canada),

Prof. Kun Gao (China), 

Prof.  Francesco Muzi (Italy),

Prof. T.Panagopoulos (Portugal),

Prof. Van Den Toorn (Netherlands),

Prof. J.Krope (Slovenia),

Prof. T.Pelikan (USA),

Prof. G.Tsypskin (Russia),  

Prof. I.Sandberg (USA),

Prof. B.McCartin (USA),

Prof. M.Sheriff (USA),

Prof. N.Markatos (Greece),

Prof. Ming Li (China),

Prof. M.Itskov (Germany)


All aspects of cybernetics, applied systems theory in real life, development, sustainability, ecosystems, applications of civil engineering, ecology, geoscience etc...are covered. It appears quarterly. Special Issues are specially encouraged.


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Previous Volumes


Issue 1, Volume 6, 2012

On a Modal Approach for Oscillations Damping in Affine and Piecewise Affine Systems
by Virginia Ecaterina Oltean, Radu Dobrescu, Dan Popescu, Maximilian Nicolae

Abstract: In the case of continuous affine systems, an oscillating behavior, due to the presence of pairs of complex eigenvalues in the spectrum of the system matrix, is considered. The control problem consists of damping the oscillations and tracking a piecewise constant reference signal. A control solution is proposed, based on pole placement combined with the internal model principle. Sufficient conditions for the controller existence are deduced and some issues concerning fixed and variable step simulations approaches are discussed. The results are extended to piecewise affine hybrid systems, composed of a set of piecewise affine systems and a switching strategy based on a state space partition.
Affine systems, controllability, discrete systems, internal model, hybrid systems, pole placement, tracking
Full Paper, pp. 1-8


The Water Vapor Influence in Gas Emissions in a Four Stroke Diesel Engine
by Charalampos Arapatsakos, Achilleas Dratzidis, Anastasios Karkanis

Abstract: In nowadays there are an increased number of cars and vehicles, which run on gasoline or diesel fuel. As a result of this is the production of air pollution. There are several many types of air pollutant. These include smog, acid rain, the greenhouse effect and holes in the ozone layer. Some of these pollutants can be created by human activities, such as cooking, smoking, car emissions, smokestacks and other industrial inputs into the atmosphere and other by atmospheric conditions, such as the wind and rain. This work examines the effect of water vapour in gas emissions in Diesel engine. It includes the background and the calculation of an adequate supply of water vapour in the exhaust pipe, the operating principles of the Diesel engine, nozzles and the basic principles of spraying. It also includes the process of setting up the experimental setup and the execution of our experiments. Finally the diagrams that derived from the experimental measurements of the quantities of air pollutants, with water vapour and without, are presented, and their description, their analysis, general conclusions and our suggestions for further investigation.
Gas emissions, Diesel engine, Water vapour injection
Full Paper, pp. 9-16


Improved Demand Forecasting Using Local Models Based on Delay Time Embedding
by Bernd Scholz-Reiter, Mirko Kuck, Christian Toonen

Abstract: Due to growing dynamics and complexity of today’s markets, customer demands are often highly volatile. In order to achieve a well-founded forecast of customer demands, a company has to consider several dynamic influences. Classical simple statistical prediction methods are mostly easy to apply but are not able to react on dynamic behavior. More complex statistical methods achieve better forecasts but also do not include dynamic means. Prediction methods of nonlinear dynamics consider qualitative in addition to quantitative information within time series of past customer orders in order to achieve better forecasts into the future. In particular, local models use the information fostered by delay time embedding of nonlinear time series analysis. In this paper, a research approach is presented that has the goal of outlining suitable prediction methods for future customer demands of a forecasting company in a production and delivery network.
Demand forecast, forecasting methods, nonlinear dynamics, time series analysis
Full Paper, pp. 17-27


The Gas Emissions Temperature in Relation of CO, HC, NO and Smoke
by Charalampos Arapatsakos, Dimitrios Christoforidis

Abstract: Clean air is an important factor in the quality of life. Therefore, air pollution is something that we cannot really ignore, as it affects negatively the environment and consequently the sustainability of our lifestyle and production methods. Air pollution is evident from the moment we step out of our house and greeted with black colored smog that hit us directly. This smog is not due to climate but rather due to each and every one of us. This work examines the correlation of exhaust gases temperature and rounds/min with gas emissions (CO, HC, NO, smoke) in a four-stroke diesel engine, using Multillayer Perceptrons (MLP) Networks. The Multilayer Perceptrons Network relates with high precision the temperature of exhaust gases and rounds/min of the engine, with gas emissions. The importance of this work is that when measuring the exhaust gases temperature and the rounds/min of engine forecast with very high precision their gas emissions. The comparison of results became using measurements from the real function of engine.
Gas emissions, Multillayer perceptrons (MLP) networks
Full Paper, pp. 28-35


Identifying the Main Defects Appeared in the Structure of Continuous Blanks
by Erika Popa, Teodor Heput, Erika Ardelean, Ana Socalici

Abstract: The study we carried out aims at defining and sorting the internal flaws specific for continuous cast semi-finished products, in order to enable the identification of their source and to help in taking the appropriate steps meant to prevent or to correct them, as the case may be. Industrial research has been done on the five-strand continuous casting machine over a period of several months, when we focused on the nature of the internal flaws that were found on reception of the material under study.
Continuous casting, steel, internal flaws, fissures, micro-shrinkage, central porosity, inclusions, longitudinal cavity
Full Paper, pp. 36-43


Researches on the Influence of Alloying Elements on the Adamit Steel Type
by Adina Pauca, Teodor Heput, Virginia Socalici

Abstract: Chemical composition of the alloy from which the cylinders are made by rolling is one of the main factors that determine macro and micro structure. This paper presents a method of optimizing the chemical composition of rolling cylinders made of carbon steel with high concentration. Based on industry to study the influence of alloying elements on steel rolling mill cylinders cast for the determination of correlation between surface hardness cylinders and alloying elements. Optimization of chemical composition of the cylinder was made by mathematical modeling of real experimental data obtained from production using specialized computer program Excel and Matlab. Correlations obtained were plotted in this way being able to determine optimal areas between hardness and hold various alloying elements.
Adamit, Quality, Mechanical, Rolling, Rolling mill cylinders
Full Paper, pp. 44-51


A Distributed Design for Computational Steering with High Availability of Data
by Cosmin Marian Poteras, Mihai Mocanu, Constantin Petrisor

Abstract: This paper introduces a new approach, based on state machines, for distributed frameworks, that is able to support both distributed simulation and computational steering. The framework makes use of a Distributed Chunk-based Flow Management System (DCFMS) having as main benefits the logical partitioning and data localization information. The architectures and implementation details of the two systems as well as integrative experimental results are briefly discussed.
Distributed framework, chunk based data flow, state machines
Full Paper, pp. 52-61


Instrumentation & Control Architecture Applied for safe operation of a Hydrogen Isotopes Storage System
by Eusebiu Ilarian Ionete, Bogdan Monea, Marian Vacaru

Abstract: A critical issue, in direct connection with the tritiated heavy water processing in a detritiation plant, is the safe storage of the obtained Tritium, both for environment and operating personnel. The properties of Hydrogen storage used materials refers to their ability to high “connect” Hydrogen, to have a large storage capacity, to be easily achievable and, if necessary, to allow its easy recovery. The metals and intermetallic compounds are the most used materials. To build a safe storage container for Tritium resulted from a heavy water detritiation facility, we investigate titanium powder and titanium sponge as a storage material for Hydrogen isotopes, Protium and Deuterium. Since the reaction of metal hydride formation is, in most cases, sever exothermic and for many materials almost spontaneous, new control system architecture applicable to Hydrogen isotopes storage media, taking into account all those properties, is presented. This architecture uses the resources of a DCS (Distributed Control System), based on i-processor technology (able to integrate all typical control functions, friendly display options, an alarm management system, historical data bases and advanced control tools). These resources usage allows us to operate a Deuterium and Tritium storage system under automatic control and to use an advanced Operator Interface too. The DCS closed loop algorithm is used for manual and automatic closed loop control for monitoring the corresponding operating conditions.
Architecture, control system, hydrogen, isotopes, storage, safe operation
Full Paper, pp. 62-69


The Macroregion Approach and Territorial Cohesion of the Baltic Region
by Tatjana Staube, Ineta Geipele

Abstract: The Baltic Sea Region as macroregion moves towards the regional economic approach and to build a knowledge-based economy, the new member states are in decentralization process. Spatial planning is relatively new term for the Baltic Sea Region. The authors focus on the economical development of the Baltic Sea Region The article provides an overview on the spatial planning meaning, trends of the newest research and modeling in spatial planning in the Baltic Sea Region. Several multidimensional models on the spatial planning systems are observed. The Paper also contains the sustainable development model worked out by the authors for the modern industrial real estate property.
Baltic Sea Region, knowledge-based economy, modeling in spatial planning, regional economic planning, spatial planning, sustainable European development, territorial cohesion, territorial cooperation.
Full Paper, pp. 70-78


Selection, Generation and Extraction of MCCTree using XMCCTree
by U. S. Sazaly, M. H. Selamat, S. Baharom, M. Ab. Jabar

Abstract: Previous research proposed notions of CLCA and MCLCA to answer keyword query in XML document. The notions are implemented in its proposed algorithms and the result, namely MCCTree, is ranked with its proposed ranking method. The algorithms transform the XML tree into a compact global tree called CGTree, and select the MCCTree from the CGTree. The resulted MCCTree is in a compact structure; however the calculation in the ranking method requires the original structure as in the XML tree. Thus, this paper presents a new algorithm that implements the same notions with different approach. The MCCTree is returned in a structure as required by the ranking method. This algorithm, called XMCCTree, improve the efficiency of producing a set of MCCTree in answering keyword query in XML document.
XMCCTree, algorithm, MCLCA, CLCA, MCCTree, XML, keyword query
Full Paper, pp. 79-86


Sizing of a 3,000,000t Bulk Cargo Port through Discrete and Stochastic Simulation Integrated with Response Surface Methodology Techniques
by L. Cassettari, R. Mosca, R. Revetria, F. Rolando

Abstract: The purpose of the study is to size, by means of a discrete and stochastic simulator, a bulk cargo port for the unloading of coal to cover the annual requirements of a thermal power plant located next to the berth. The logistics system under consideration had to be designed so that it could ensure the supply of enough coal for the operation of the plant while reducing the overall operating costs of the system (freightage, demurrage for delays in unloading operations, investment costs, overheads) to a minimum. Thanks to Design of Experiments (DOE) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM), it was possible to determine the mathematical relationship, in the form of regression meta-model, existing between the design variables and the target function consisting in the overall annual operating cost. After the sizing it has been finally done an analysis of the strength of the identified solution as the needs for coal on the part of the power plant, with a specific reference to the capacity of the intermediate accumulation tank which constitutes a critical element in the design of this type of plants.
Bulk Cargo Port Design, Discrete and Stochastic Simulation, Mean Square Pure Error Evolution, Response Surface Methodology
Full Paper, pp. 87-97


Automatic Identification Technologies
by Maria Vlad, Alexandra Anisie, Madalin Stefan Vlad

Abstract: With increasingly urgent need for reliable security, biometrics is being spotlighted as the authentication method for the next generation. Among numerous biometric technologies, fingerprint authentication has been in use for the longest time and bears more advantages than other biometric technologies do. In this paper there are proposed two systems based on biometric identification, in conjuction with smart card, for proof of advanced security offered by the systems. There are presented also background of fingerprint recognition, along with data storage on smart cards and RFIDs.
Biometry, identification, identity, RFID
Full Paper, pp. 98-105


Real-Time Implementation of Predictive Control using Programmable Logic Controllers
by Marian Mrosko, Eva Miklovicova

Abstract: In this paper the real-time aspects of digital control system implementation are investigated. The control system design is based on the model predictive control, which is one of the most popular advanced control design techniques. Two alternatives of predictive control implementation using the programmable logic controllers (PLC) are proposed and compared. In the first case the control law design and execution is performed in PC using the MATLAB/Simulink environment and the PLC is used only to accomplish the data acquisition and control input implementation. The communication between PC and PLC is ensured by the OPC communication protocol. In the second case the control law is irectly implemented in PLC using the available instructions. The PC is not needed for the real-time control execution; it only supports the control design and the signal processing and visualization. In both cases controlled plant is wired to PLC.
Model predictive control, programmable logic controller, OPC communication, real-time system
Full Paper, pp. 106-113


Measurement of the Wheel-rail Relative Displacement using the Image Processing Algorithm for the Active Steering Wheelsets
by Min-Soo Kim

Abstract: The central problem of the active wheelsets steering systems of the railway vehicles is the measurement of the lateral movements of wheelsets with the noncontact manner. This paper describes the development of a real-time vision system for active steering of a railway vehicle to detect a lateral displacement between wheel and rail in various dynamic environments. An active steering system has proven its ability to reconcile the contradictingrequirements of running stability and track friendliness on curve sections and it consists of one actuator, a controller, and sensors. As one of the sensor system for detecting the wheel/rail relative displacement in active steering bogie, the image processing techniques were investigated with the aid of the vision based image processing algorithm. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a real time vision system for a railway vehicle to measure its wheel/rail displacement. In order to extract wheel and rail features, this paper uses the various successive image processing algorithms which consist of the camera compensation algorithm against the degradation image quality, the algorithm for improving the contrast effect based on the block of the input image, the pre-processing algorithm coped with the dynamic illumination environment based on the edge, the line segment extraction algorithm of the wheel and rail using the RHT (Random Hough Transformation), and the wheel-rail lateral displacement calculation algorithm. Running test results show that our proposed lateral displacement measurement method is accurate in each sampling rate, and make it a sensor to be placed in the active steering control systems.
Image Processing Algorithm, Wheel/rail Relative Displacement, Active Steering
Full Paper, pp. 114-121


Development of the Braking Performance Evaluation Technology for High-speed Brake Dynamometer
by Min-Soo Kim

Abstract: Brake system of railway vehicles has a crucial role for the safety as well as riding quality of passengers. And the technology of braking performance evaluation has been generally developed with technology of speed improvement of railroad vehicle. Brake dynamometer is designed to simulate the brake characteristic of the high speed train, and has a function of record the data which can be reproduced and help to analyze and compare the experimental object, and also is used to develop and test the brake systems. In this paper, we tried to test braking friction materials (disc brake and block brake) for the high speed rotation which is in a current use commercially, and its results will be introduced by means of arranging of a braking performance test evaluation technology on braking friction materials of railway vehicle using the high speed dynamometer (400 [km/h]-grade).
Brake Dynamometer, Railway Vehicle, Friction Coefficients, Disc Brake, Block Brake
Full Paper, pp. 122-129


Photo- and Electroluminescence Properties of Pb1-xMnxTe(Se,S) Thin Films
by M. A. Mehrabova, H. R.Nuriyev, T. H. Ismayilov

Abstract: In the given work the energy spectrum and wave functions have been theoretically calculated for quantum-sized films of Pb1-xMnxTe(Se,S) semimagnetic semiconductors. The photo- and electroluminescence properties of Pb1-xMnxTe(Se,S) thin films by the method of molecular beams epitaxial on BaF2 substrates were studied. It was established that band gap width of epitaxial layers expanded by the change in Mn amount. In the present report are given investigation results of the structure, morphology of a surface and physical properties of epitaxia Pb1-xMnxTe (x=0.02) films grown by the «hot wall» method in ultrahigh vacuum ( ?(3 ? 5) ?10- 9 Torr) unit with oil free evacuation. It is established, that at ultrahigh vacuum residual pressure of gases in working volume plays an appreciable role during growth of epitaxial films with perfect structure and high electrophysical properties. Comparison and generalization of the received results with other A4B6 chalcogenides grown in ultrahigh vacuum have been carried out.
Semimagnetic semiconductor, nanolayer, sensitive, detector, infrared, electroluminescence, photoluminescence, energy spectrum, ultrahigh vacuum
Full Paper, pp. 130-136


Intuitive Robot Programming for Automation of Low Standardized Logistic Processes
by M. Rohde, S. Kunaschk, M. Lutjen, F. Ahrlich, A.-K. Pallasch

Abstract: The increasing globalization of trade flows causes a continuous growth of packaged goods and results in an increasing demand for handling of general cargo. Due to low standardized logistic processes, the use of automation technologies for improving the handling efficiency is very challenging. Depending on requests of suppliers and customers, the logistics service providers have to develop individual solutions for logistics processes. If automation technology, e.g. industrial robots, is used to optimize the processes, it has to adapt to changed conditions. This leads to complex systems and time-consuming tasks of robot programming. In order to face this challenge, this paper presents an approach for intuitive control of robots by using a cyber physical system (CPS). First, it describes challenges for automation of logistic processes and discusses the main idea of cyber physical systems. Subsequently, the concept of cyber physical robotic systems for logistics (CPRSL) is depicted and an example application is given, which bases on robot programming by demonstration (PbD). Within the logistic task of “depalletizing boxes” the system is tested and evaluated.
Cyber physical systems, human machine interface, industrial robots, robotic in logistics
Full Paper, pp. 137-145


Real Genetic Algorithm Based Fuzzy–AHP Approach to Congestion Relief via UPFC
by H. Iranmanesh, M. Rashidi-Nejad

Abstract: Power systems may not capable of utilizing full transmission capacity. Restructuring of electricity industry may need some management criteria in order to improve technical as well as economical efficiency. Under the new scheme of power markets, congestion management is a crucial problem that is needed to be considered. One of the most important issues related to restructured power systems is congestion transmission. Congestion relief can be handled using FACTS devices, where transmission capability may be improved. The optimal location of UPFC (Unified power flow controller) to relieve congestion in the network is proposed. In congestion management, the objective function is nonlinear hence for solving this function real genetic algorithm (RGA) is used for optimization process while analytical hierarchy process (AHP) with fuzzy sets is implemented to evaluate RGA fitness function. The above method is tested on modified IEEE 5-bus system.
Congestion Relief, Transmission Capability, Real Genetic Algorithm, Fuzzy Sets, UPFC
Full Paper, pp. 146-153


PID Control Strategy for Sensor Random Packet Dropouts in Networked Control System
by Eva Miklovicova, Marian Mrosko

Abstract: In this paper the control strategy for networked control systems is proposed that is able to deal with the problem of data packet dropout at the sensor-controller link. The PID control structure implemented in Simatic S7-200 programmable logical controller is considered. The control design is based on the generalized predictive control (GPC) where the sequence of future control inputs sequence up to a given horizon is calculated at each sampling instant which can be stored and used at next sampling instants in case the current output value is not available. The PID controller tuning rules are obtained by equating the PID control law with the pole-placement control structure of GPC given some conditions on the plant model orders. The proposed control strategy is implemented as switched control system where two or more control laws are switched arbitrarily often. The closed loop stability is investigated using the concept of quadratic stability.
Networked control system, PID controller, model predictive control, data dropout
Full Paper, pp. 154-162


Verification of the Behavior of Deck Bridges with Encased Filler Beams
by V. Kvocak, V. Kozlejova, M. Karmazinova

Abstract: This paper pertains the experimental research into filler-beam deck bridges with encased beams of various sections.For more effective steel utilization inverted T-sections are used. Resistances of deck bridges using various types of composite action between steel members/filler beams and concrete are compared. Design values of resistance moment for individual types of beam are calculated according to Eurocode 4. The theoretical calculations and their results are further verified in experiments.
Deck bridges, beam, composite action, resistance moment
Full Paper, pp.  163-170